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Electric cars, The automotive world continues to experience rapid progress and development from year to year.

We can observe various significant improvements in existing vehicles.

Ranging from accessories, vehicle equipment, security systems to very modern used machines.

This is inseparable from the rapid development of technology that supports the development of modern car updates and modifications today.

Talking about modern cars, there is one type of car that is being talked about a lot lately.

This type of car is none other than an electric car or what is often called an electric car (EV).

This is marked by the emergence of various electric cars in many countries.

Countries around the world are also grappling with the issue of switching from traditional cars to electric cars.

Of course, Indonesia has also made great strides in the campaign for the introduction of electric cars.

However, did you know that this is not the first time that electric cars have been seen around the world? In fact, the movement to introduce electric cars dates back to the 18th century, and the inventor of the first electric car was not the Elon Musk we know today.

How did the electric car appear? How electric cars can be created and developed?

Do you understand what an electric car is?

Interestingly, the electric car was not yesterday afternoon's invention. If Carmudian searches for “first electric car” on Google search engine, Robert Anderson's name will come up.

He is credited with creating the first electric car in 1832-1839. At that time, several inventors also conducted experiments to produce electric cars.

Meanwhile, the millennial generation or Gen-Z may be more familiar with the name Elon Musk as the founder of the Tesla electric car brand.

The Tesla Roadster is the first model marketed by the brand in the United States (US) in 2008. The world's first electric car

If you think that electric cars are the latest invention of this century and you also think that Elon Musk was the first to invent electric cars, rest assured that you are wrong. Electric cars have made great strides thanks to Elon Musk, but he is not the first inventor of electric cars. Electric cars have been around since the 19th and early 20th centuries and are growing in popularity.

According to, the concept of an electric car dates back to the 18th century, when it was developed by several researchers and inventors from Hungary, the Netherlands and the United States. They began to focus on the concept of a battery electric car and developed several small-scale electric cars. The first electric cars were designed for children and were produced by Bugatti and The

Little Car Company. In 1832, an Englishman named Robert Anderson developed a three-wheeled car powered by an electric battery. Anderson is considered the inventor of the world's first electric car. Then, in America at the end of the 18th century, a pharmacist named William Morrison managed to introduce his electric car in 1890. His electric car could accommodate up to six passengers and had a speed of 22 km/hour (mph). In 1898 it was Ferdinand Porsche's turn and at the same time he developed an electric car named P1. Fernando created the world's first hybrid car that can run on electricity and gasoline.

The decline in the popularity of electric cars

Electric cars, not always popular and successful, faltered and slowly disappeared in the early 20th century. This was due to the advent of the Ford Model T in 1908, a car that cost far less than an electric car. In addition, the Ford Model T has a longer range than electric cars. At that time, electric cars had problems with battery charging time and the number of chargers or battery slots.


Expanding highways and lower heating oil prices have been strong factors behind the decline of electric cars.

The emergence of the electric car and its development

Electric cars have lost popularity and presence for more than 40 years, now electric cars are making a comeback in several countries, even Indonesia. The pioneer of the revival of electric cars is the company General Motors (GM), which is developing electric cars. In 1988 GM presented its first electric car prototype at an environmental symposium. 

General Motors led by Roger Smith in collaboration with AeroVironment California succeeded in producing an electric car called EV1 whose production began in 1996-1999. With the development and progress of electric cars on the European continent, the Japanese car manufacturer Toyota also did not want to be left behind and presented its first hybrid car, the Toyota Prius. Up to 18,000 units of production cars can be sold. 

Until now, the Prius has been used as a commercial vehicle by several taxi companies in several countries. Then, in 2009, the US Department of Energy lent $8 billion to Ford, Nissan, and Tesla Motors to finance the development of green vehicles. Then Nissan launched its electric car called LEAF, which can go up to 114 km/hour. As a result, electric cars are increasingly moving around the world.

By 2020, news about electric cars will be very lively in various parts of the world. Since then, various brands and types of electric cars have continued to be mass-produced in various automotive industries. 

The maturity of various features of modern cars and electric motorbikes is starting to attract the attention of the public and even governments and investors from various countries investing in electric cars. 

The prospects for electric cars are quite bright because they are ecological vehicles and comply with the policies of the governments of various countries, including Indonesia, which promotes the "green" movement and introduces ecological vehicles. Currently there are various types of electric cars, both hybrid electric cars, plug-in electric cars and battery electric cars from various brands.


Electric car components

Conventional cars need an internal combustion engine to convert heat energy into mechanical energy, but electric cars don't. The mechanical energy is obtained from the motor, which receives power from the battery as it runs through the inverter.

The main components of an electric car are as follows.

Battery pack:

The function of this component is to store electrical energy using direct current (DC). Batteries are the most expensive electric car component. This component also has the highest weight among other components.

• Inverter:

This component converts direct current from the battery into alternating current (AC) before being supplied to the electric motor. Inverters are also capable of converting AC power to DC power. This capacity is needed to support the regenerative braking function. •

Electric motor components produce mechanical energy which is useful for driving electric cars. An electric motor is shaped like a dynamo and consists of several parts, including a coil, stator, rotor, and a bipolar magnet.

Additional battery:

This component is also often called the battery. Electric cars still need batteries, even though they already have very large batteries. Batteries are required to operate vehicle equipment.

• Charge port:

This component Connects the car to an external power source that charges the battery.

• Heating system management:

This component is responsible for preventing the electric motor and battery from overheating while driving.

• Handle:

Electric cars also have gearboxes. Its job is to direct the kinetic energy generated by the electric motor to the wheels.

The component specifications above may differ for each EV product. For example, premium electric cars usually have two electric motors for the front and rear wheels. As a result, the car has all-wheel drive.

Types of electric cars and the principle of their operation

Type of electric car

Types of electric cars are constantly changing to offer potential users different options. Currently the world is increasingly familiar with the types of electric cars such as BEV, HEV, PHEV and FCEV. Each type of electric car has a different way or principle of operation. This article briefly discusses the definition or understanding, types, types, habits and operating principles of electric cars circulating in Indonesia and the world today.

electric car

The definition or definition of an electric car is a vehicle that is powered wholly or partly by an engine that uses electricity in a battery. The battery must be charged.

The first practical electric car was made in the 1880's. This car was very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The development and innovation of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the mass production of cheaper gasoline-powered vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric cars.

The development of energy storage technology, especially battery technology, has recently re-popularized the use of electric vehicles. Here's how an electric car works - an overview

In general, electric cars work like this.

• When the car pedal is pressed, eg

• The controller extracts and regulates electrical energy from the vehicle battery and inverter

• By setting the controller, the inverter then sends a certain amount of electrical energy to the motor (depending on the depth of pedal pressure).

• Electric traction motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy (rotation/rotation).

• Rotation of the engine rotor rotates the gearbox, so the wheels turn and then the car moves.


An explanation of the principles or workings of an electric car applies to the BEV type.

Type of electric car

There are 4 (four) types of electric cars. The main designs are as follows:

• Battery electric vehicle (BEV)

• Hybrid

• Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

• Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

• Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

This type of BEV, which is also called All-Electric Vehicle (AEV), is a vehicle that works entirely on battery electricity. The BEV type does not have an internal combustion engine (ICE). Electric power is stored in the battery. The battery is charged by connecting to an external power supply.

BEV architecture and components

BV component

• Electric motor

• Reverse

• Battery

• Control module (controller)

• Powertrains

The working principle of the BEV electric car

The working principle of the BEV electric car is very simple:

• Power is converted to AC power from a DC battery to start the motor

• The accelerator sends a signal to the control module to regulate the vehicle speed by changing the frequency of the AC supply from the inverter to the engine (if the car has a squirrel cage engine).

• The motor engages and rotates the wheels using the gears

• When the brakes are applied or the car slows down, the engine becomes a generator, producing electricity which is stored in the battery.

Example of a BEV electric car

Volkswagen e-Golf, Tesla Model 3, BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Chevy Spark, Nissan LEAF, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai Ioniq, Karma Revera, Kia Soul, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla X, Toyota Rav4.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

This type of electric car is also known as standard hybrid or parallel hybrid. The HEV type has two propulsion systems, an internal combustion engine (ICE) and a traction motor. ICE can produce energy from the combustion of fuel. This motor is powered by a battery. 

The gasoline engine and engine simultaneously crank the transmission to drive the wheels. The difference between HEV type cars and BEV and PHEV cars is that HEV car batteries are only charged by engine rotation, wheel movement or a combination of both. This car does not have a charging port, so the battery cannot be charged from outside the system, for example from the PLN electricity network.

HEV electric car type components

  • Machine

  • Electric motor

  • Battery pack with controller and inverter

  • Gas tank

  • Control module (controller)

The working principle of the HEV electric car

The mode or principle of operation of the HEV electric car is as follows:

• The engine has a fuel tank like a normal car

• HEV vehicle types have a battery to start the engine

• Both engine and motor can rotate gears simultaneously

• After braking, the engine becomes a generator and charges the battery

An example of the type of HEV electric car

Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

The PHEV type car is a hybrid type with an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction motor. In terms of technology, the working principle of the PHEV electric car is called a series hybrid. PHEV type cars also provide fuel options. This type of electric car can run on fossil energy sources (eg gasoline) or alternative sources (eg biodiesel) and batteries. Unlike HEVs, this type of vehicle battery can be charged from an external power source by connecting the external power source to the vehicle input (charging port) on an electric vehicle charging station (EVCS).

A PHEV in general can be operated in at least two modes, namely:

• All-electric mode, using only battery power to propel the vehicle

• Hybrid mode where electricity and gasoline are used together.

Some PHEV electric cars in Indonesia can travel more than 70 miles on electricity alone. PHEV components

• Electric motor

• Machine

• Reverse

• Battery

• Gas tank

• Control Module

• Battery charger (if installed)

The principle of operation of the PHEV electric car

The mode or principle of operation of a PHEV electric car usually starts in "all-electric mode" and runs on electric power until the battery is empty. Some models of this type of vehicle may switch to hybrid mode when the vehicle speed on the highway is constant, usually above 60 or 70 miles per hour. When the battery runs out, the machine takes over. A PHEV car can also function as a conventional plug-in hybrid.

As well as being able to connect a PHEV car battery to an external energy source, it can also be charged using an ICE (internal combustion engine) cycle or regenerative braking. During braking, the engine acts as a generator. The energy produced can also be used to charge the power supply or battery.

The following is an example of the type of PHEV electric car

Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Chevy Volt, Chrysler Pacifica, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Mercedes C350e, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Audi A3 E-Tron, BMW 330e, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, Volvo XC90 T8.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

The FCEV type or type of electric vehicle is also known as a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or a zero-emission vehicle. This type of FCEV uses fuel cell technology to generate electricity. Electricity is used to power the engine to move the vehicle. The working principle of the FCEV type electric car is almost similar to the working principle of the BEV type electric car. This type only has a system that converts chemical energy in the fuel cell into electricity.

FCEV component

• Electric motor

• Fuel cell

• Hydrogen tank

• Battery with converter and controller