It’s summer is time to paving a patio and with it the desire to finally sit outside on your patio and spend some quality time. Now the patio needs to be paved. And here how to paving a patio : 15 steps instructions for a beautiful patio :
1 Do It Yourself Or Have It Done By A Professional?
Paving a patio is not necessarily a job for a professional. If you have the right materials and tools on hand and have the necessary manual dexterity and time, you can do this project yourself. To make it as easy as possible for you, we have prepared detailed instructions for paving a patio.
2 Paving a Patio: Step-By-Step Instructions
Important questions to ask yourself before paving a patio:
Which paving stone should decorate my patio? Tips in general about paving a patio we have summarized in our article “Paving a Patio.
What is the current condition / What preliminary work needs to be done?
What laying pattern do I want for paving a patio?
Are all the necessary tools for paving a patio available?
3 Paving a Patio: Important Preparatory Work
To ensure that everything goes smoothly when paving a patio, some preparatory work is needed. Doing this work correctly will also ensure that the patio remains beautiful for a long time and that the ground does not sink and create unsightly deformations.
4 Digging Out The Ground For Paving a Patio
The area to be laid should be excavated by hand or with an excavator. It is recommended to excavate about 40 cm, especially about the frost resistance and winter suitability of the patio (you can read more about what to consider to winterize your patio in our article. Winterizing your patio). These 40 cm are needed for a layer of gravel (about 25 – 30 cm), a layer of grit or sand (about 5 cm), and the paving itself (about 8 cm). Now it is a matter of calculating the right amount of material. This is then ordered from a civil engineering company or another supplier of building materials.
As a rule of thumb, we use the Required amount of gravel = area x 25 cm.
5 Adjacent To The Side Patio
Curbs not only have the function of demarcating the sides of the patio but they are also needed to give stability to the paving. And curbs are available at different heights (25 / 30 / 40 cm) and depths, usually, the stones have a length of 100 cm. Curbs need a solid foundation to be laid.
The height of the foundation depends on the height of the curb. As with the actual paving, it is essential to draw a guideline at the height of the top edge of the curbs. Especially on larger patios, the settlement of the curbs can otherwise get out of alignment very quickly. As a rule, curbs are set before the substructure with crushed stone.
If the patio will later have a privacy screen, it can already be planned here and any supports can be placed immediately.
6 Fill The Patio With Gravel
The area excavated in the last step, where the paving is to be placed, must be carefully compacted. Important note: The gravel should be laid in layers, that is, it should be shaken and compacted after each layer. This increases the strength of the subgrade. The better the layers are shaken, the less likely the pavement will set later. Since compaction makes the aggregate “denser,” you should calculate about 3 inches more ballast height.
Our tip: It is advisable (at least for large patio) to order the truckloads one after the other so that there is always enough time for vibration and the crushed stone – if possible – can be poured directly into the excavated subsoil. This saves you the work of doing this with an excavator.
You have finished placing the ballast when, after compaction, a height of about 11 cm remains from the top of the ballast to the (planned) top of the pavement. This 11 cm is calculated from a layer of grit or sand (about 4 cm) plus the height of the pavers (about 8 cm). When vibrating with the vibratory plate, the pavement sinks another approx. 1 cm. Therefore, the following calculation yields: 4 cm + 8 cm – 1 cm = 11 cm.
7 Crushed Stone Or Sand Bed
The pavement rests on a neatly trowelled bed of fine crushed stone or sand. Which bed material is used depends on local conditions and also on the stones used – the supplier can provide detailed information on this. As a rule, however, the material used also depends on whether the patio is to be permeable or impermeable. Very fine-grained sand barely allows water to permeate, while coarser-grained crushed stone ensures fairly high water permeability.
The sand/chippings are spread evenly over the gravel subgrade with a shovel or wheelbarrow. It is advisable to use a rake to spread the material easily. The layer of bedding material should be about 3 to 4 cm thick; it is then neatly removed with a wooden or a ruler.
8 What Should I Pay Attention To When Paving a Patio?
In the end, the metal rods and masonry rope come into play. These are driven into the ground on either side of the patio with a hammer. The masonry rope is stretched between the metal rods. The masonry rope must be tight because it performs two functions. On the one hand, it indicates the later top edge of the paving, and on the other hand, it can be used to determine the exact slope of the patio. If a patio is to be paved with several level differences, it is advisable to tap in metal rods at each additional point.
9 How To Determine The Slope Of The Patio
Once the straightedge is stretched, you need to continue working with the straightedge. To determine the slope, a length of 2 m is useful, as well as another person to help hold the ruler. Now place the ruler at one angle on the line and make sure the line is horizontal (in the water). If the line has a slope, measure the distance between the line and the other corner of the ruler.
The slope is calculated as follows: Height / Length x 100
A calculation example: If the distance between the line and the straight edge of 2 meters is 4 cm, the slope is 4 cm over a length of 2 meters. According to the above formula, the following slope is calculated: 4 / 200 * 100 = 2.0% (per meter the string falls 2.0 cm – this means a slope of 2.0%).
Important: Every patio must have a slope so that rainwater can drain away by itself. The value of 2 % determined in the calculation example is considered ideal and should therefore be pursued as a guideline.
10 Delivery Of Paving Stones
The paving stones for the patio should be delivered (by a hardware store or building materials specialist) as close as possible to the area to be paved. This will save a lot of time and sweat afterward, as the pavers will not have to be carried as far. Some manufacturers deliver the pavers on disposable pallets, others in loose form. The advantage of delivery on pallets is that you can use an excavator to move a complete pallet again. The disadvantage is that you have to dispose of the pallets after you are finished with the stones.
11 Beginning The Paving Work
Once all preparatory work has been completed (pit excavated, filled with gravel, and compacted, the sand or gravel bed applied and leveled), you can begin the actual paving work. To do this, gradually take the stones from the pallet and place them on the prepared bed. Once they are in an optimal position, tap the stones into the sand/chip bed with a rubber mallet (light blows!).
Our tip: The paving stones are laid according to a specific laying pattern. You determine this together with the supplier at the time of purchase. It is advisable to test lay the paving stones before starting the actual work. This makes it easier to lay the pavers later.
The distance between the pavers must be never so large that the stones can shift or even fall over. The edge areas, where no more whole stones will fit, are left open first. Since a large number of pavers will eventually need to be cut, it makes sense to do this all at once.
12 Cutting Pavers: Cracker Or Stone Cutter?
For normal stone paving, the so-called stone crusher is a good solution. The stone crusher works quietly and cleanly and produces little dust. However, it is not suitable for thick paving and larger stone slabs. In these cases, a wet blade should be used. This often has a diamond blade that allows for a straight, clean cut. However, working with a wet cutter is noisy and causes a lot of dirt. On the other hand, it works precisely and is unbreakable.
Important: During cutting, the wet cutter creates a slurry of water and plaster particles that can cause contamination in the substrate. Therefore, the cutter should be placed in a place that can be easily cleaned. You can also cut on a dirt tarp that protects the substrate. Because of the noise, earplugs or headphones are recommended.
13 Shaking Off The New Patio Stones
Once all the stones are in place, use the same vibrator used for the gravel. To prevent stones from breaking, place a plastic shield on the vibrator. The entire land surface must be vibrated off. Start at the outer edges and work in a spiral toward the center of the patio. This process should be performed several times until all the stones are evenly and firmly laid.
14 Sweeping In The Joints
Paving a patio is now complete. The last step is to sweep the joints. To do this, use fine sand, preferably grout specially designed for this purpose, which can be purchased at building material stores and DIY stores. Sprinkle the entire patio surface with the sand and then sweep it into the joints with a broom. This should be done until the joints are filled to about the height of the stone surface. Rain will cause the sand to sink back into the joints somewhat, so it may be necessary to rework after a few days or weeks. The process continues until the joints are permanently filled with sand to the top edge. This way they can permanently support the stones, and the result is a harmonious whole.
15 Conclusion: Paving a Patio Is Not Witchcraft!
As you can see from these instructions, paving a patio is not witchcraft. If you follow the steps carefully and purchase the necessary materials and tools in advance, you can pave your patio yourself without any problems. Take your time and consult a professional if you get stuck.
Now we wish you fun and success with your “paving a patio” project. In the end, you will be proud of your work and will be able to spend many pleasant hours on your tiled patio from now on.
Are you looking for additional patio design inspiration? Check out our Pinterest channel on backyard feedco. In addition, you will find a variety of beautiful boards around the house and garden.
What do you think about the article on how to paving a patio? hope it helps you. If you want to find more articles about a patio, you can read about how to build backyard patio ideas on a budget, or small backyard patio ideas. Besides making a beautiful patio you also need to clean pavers on your patio. Find more about stone patio design in the articles backyard stone patio design ideas.